ROBOT can convert tables to OWL format using templates. See
template.csv for an example. The approach extends the QTT method described in Overcoming the ontology enrichment bottleneck with Quick Term Templates.
ROBOT can read comma-separated values (
.csv) or tab-separated values (
robot template --template template.csv \ --prefix "ex: http://example.com/" \ --ontology-iri "https://github.com/ontodev/robot/examples/template.owl" \ --output results/template.owl
Each template file must be set up in the following format:
template command accepts an optional input ontology, either using the
--input option or from the previous command in a chain. If an input ontology is given, its RDFS labels will be used when parsing the template. The
-t option specified the CSV or TSV template file. Multiple templates are allowed, and the order of templates is significant. You can also specify the normal
--prefix options, the
--version-iri, and the usual
--output options. See below for the three different merge options, and details on how they control the output of the command.
ID: Every term must have an IRI to identify it. This can be specified with an
IDcolumn. Usually this will be a prefixed ID like
GO:12345. See the
--prefixoptions for details. Rows with an empty ID cell will be skipped.
LABEL: If a term exists in an ontology, or its ID has been defined elsewhere (perhaps in a previous template), then the
LABELcolumn can specify an
rdfs:labelthat uniquely identifies the target term. This can be easier the numeric IDs for human readers.
TYPE: this is the
rdf:typefor the row. Because ROBOT is focused on ontology development, the default value is
owl:Classand this column is optional. When creating an OWLIndividual, specify the class to which it belongs in this column.
CLASS_TYPE: ROBOT creates a class for each row of data. You must specify a CLASS_TYPE, which can be either:
subclass: the created class will be asserted to be a subclass of each templated class expression
equivalent: the created class will be asserted to be equivalent to the intersection of all the templated class expressions
Astring annotation: If the template string starts with an
Aand a space then it will be interpreted as a string annotation. The rest of the template string should be the label or compact IRI of an annotation property, e.g.
rdfs:label. The cell value will be the literal value of the annotation with type
ATtyped annotation: If the template string starts with an
ATand a space then it will be interpreted as a typed annotation. The
^^characters must be used to separate the annotation property from the datatype, e.g.
rdfs:comment^^xsd:integer. The cell value will be the typed literal value of the annotation.
ALlanguage annotation: If the template string starts with an
ALand a space then it will be interpreted as a language annotation. The
@character must be used to separate the annotation property from the language code, e.g.
AIannotation IRI: If the template string starts with an
AIand a space, then the annotation will be made as with a string annotation, except that the cell value will be interpreted as an IRI.
Cclass expression: If the template string starts with a
Cand a space then it will be interpreted as a class expression. The value of the current cell will be substituted into the template, replacing all occurrences of the percent
%character. Then the result will be parsed into an OWL class expression. ROBOT uses the same syntax for class expressions as Protégé: Manchester Syntax. If it does not recognize a name, ROBOT will assume that you’re trying to refer to a class by its IRI (or compact IRI). This can lead to unexpected behaviour, but it allows you to refer to classes (by IRI) without loading them into the input ontology. This is particularly useful when the input ontology would be too large, such as the NCBI Taxonomy.
>Aannotation on annotation: Annotates the annotation axiom created from the cell to the left with the cell value. The column to the left must be an
>Cannotation on class expression: Annotates the class expression axiom created from the cell to the left with the cell value. The column to the left must be a
Sometimes you want to include zero or more values in a single spreadsheet cell, for example when you want to allow for multiple annotations or have seperate logical axioms. If a template string also contains
SPLIT=|, then ROBOT will use the
| character to split the contents of a cell in that column and add an annotation for each result (if there are any). Instead of
| you can specify a string of characters of your choice - other than pure whitespace - to split on (e.g.
template command has three options for merging, which are especially useful when chaining commands. First some terminology:
--inputoption, used to resolve terms in the template
The three options can differ in which ontology is saved for the
--output option and which is sent to the next command in the chain:
merge-before: the result ontology is merged into the input ontology immediately, so only the merged ontology will be output
--outputoptions apply to the result ontology, then result ontology is merged into the input ontology, and the output of the command is the merged ontology
These three options are particularly useful when chaining commands. For instance, the
merge-after option lets you save the result ontology separately, then send the merged ontology to the next command. See merge for more information on merge options, including
If the command inclues
--ancestors, the result ontology will include the ancestors (from the input ontology) of the result ontology terms. Only the labels of the ancestors will be included.
Create an output ontology that includes the input ontology and the terms defined in the template:
robot template --merge-before --input edit.owl \ --template template.csv --output results/template.owl
robot template --merge-after \ --input edit.owl \ --template uberon_template.csv \ --output results/uberon_template.owl \ annotate --annotation rdfs:comment "UBERON with new terms" \ --output results/uberon_v2.owl
Create an output ontology that consists of the template terms plus their dependencies (
robot template --ancestors --input edit.owl \ --template uberon_template.csv \ --ontology-iri "https://github.com/ontodev/robot/examples/uberon_template_2.owl" \ --output results/uberon_template_2.owl
Create an output ontology that includes the input ontology and the terms defined in the template, but keep the import statements* (
robot template --merge-before \ --input test.owl \ --collapse-import-closure false \ --template uberon_template.csv \ --output results/test_template.owl
* NOTE: the imports would be merged into the output if
--collapse-import-closure true is included instead.
You must specify at least one template with
--template to proceed.
--merge-after cannot be used simultaneously.
The annotation property provided could not be resolved. Check your template to ensure the provided annotation property is in a correct IRI or CURIE format. For legibility, using CURIEs is recommended, but you must ensure that the prefix is defined.
A rdfs:label A http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#label
The datatype provided in an
AT template string could not be resolved. Check your template to ensure the provided datatype is in a correct IRI or CURIE format. For legibility, using CURIEs is recommended, but you must ensure that the prefix is defined.
AT rdfs:label^^xsd:string AT rdfs:label^^http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string
--template option accepts the following file types: CSV, TSV, or TAB.
Each template must have an ID column. Keep in mind that if the template has an ID column, but it is not filled in for a row, that row will be skipped.
The IRI provided as the value (in a row) to an
AI template string could not be resolved as an IRI. Check your template to ensure the provided value is in a correct IRI or CURIE format. If using CURIEs, remember to ensure the prefix is defined.
The template string for an
AL annotation must always include
The template cannot be found in the current directory. Make sure the file exists and your path is correct.
The template string for an
AT annotation must always include
An axiom annotation is an annotation on an axiom, either a class axiom or another annotation. Because of this, any time
>A is used, an annotation must be in the previous column. Any time
>C is used, a class expression must be in the previous column.
A rdfs:label,>A rdfs:comment C %,>C rdfs:comment
There number of header columns (first row) must be equal to the number of template string columns (second row).
CLASS_TYPE column is included, ROBOT will default to using
subclass. If a
CLASS_TYPE column is included, though, each row must include a specified class type. If the
CLASS_TYPE is left empty, this error message will be returned.
An IRI cannot be created from the provided ID. This is most likely because the ID is not formatted properly, as an IRI or a CURIE.
The content of a class expression cell (
C) was not able to be parsed by OWLAPI. Check the formatting of the cell and the template string to ensure you are using valid CURIEs and/or IRIs.
Valid template strings are limited to the described above. If a different template string is provided, this error message will be returned.
CLASS_TYPE values are limited to
equivalent. Anything else placed in that column will result in this error message.