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ROBOT is licensed under the
BSD 3-Clause License.
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The remove command allows you to remove selected axioms from an ontology. The filter command is the opposite of remove, allowing you to keep only selected axioms. remove works in three steps:

  1. --term: specify a set of terms (default: all terms, use --term-file for a file with terms line by line)
  2. --select: select a new set of terms using one or more relations (zero or more)
  3. --axioms: specify the axiom types to remove from those terms (default: all axioms)

For example, to remove all descendants of ‘assay’ from OBI:

robot remove --input obi.owl --term OBI:0000070 --select descendants

remove also includes a --trim option, set to false by default. If --trim true is included, ROBOT will remove any dangling entities left behind by removals. By contrast, in filter, the default is --trim true.


--select supports multiple options. These can be provided in quotes in one select statement (--select "x y z"), or in multiple statements (--select x --select y --select z). When selects are provided in multiple statements, the output of the first will be passed to the second and so on. If multiple options are provided in one statement, all options will be processed at the same time.

The following selection options can be combined in any way.


There are three general select options that give control over the types of axioms that are removed. By default, both named and anonymous axioms are removed. But, for example, if only --select anonymous is provided, the named classes will not be removed.

  1. complement: remove the complement set of the terms (equivalent to filter, except that remove creates a new ontology whereas filter edits the input ontology).
  2. named: remove named entities.
  3. anonymous: remove anonymous entities (e.g. anonymous ancestors).
  4. imports: remove import statements *

* The imports selection cannot be used with filter

Relation Types

Relation type selections provide the ability to select which terms to remove based on their relationship to the term (or terms) specified by --term/--term-file. If no relation type --select is provided, the default is self. This means that the term set itself will be removed.

  1. self (default)
  2. parents
  3. ancestors
  4. children
  5. descendants
  6. equivalents
  7. types
  8. instances

Entity Types

If an entity type is provided, only the terms of that type will be included in the removal. By default, all types are included.

  1. classes
  2. properties
  3. object-properties
  4. data-properties
  5. annotation-properties
  6. individuals


Terms can also be selected from the set based on axioms. This can be helpful if you want to remove only terms with a specific annotation. When selecting with axioms, the --select option must always be quoted.

  2. CURIE=<IRI>
  3. CURIE='literal'
  4. CURIE='literal'^^datatype
  5. CURIE=~'regex pattern'


--axioms can be the name of any OWLAPI interface that implements OWLAxiom. Aliases are provided for convenience: all, annotation, logical, class, equivalent-classes, etc. The default is all, e.g. OWLAxiom. More than one type can be provided and order is not significant. For each axiom in the ontology (not including its imports closure), if the axiom implements one of the specified interfaces AND any of the selected terms is in the axiom’s signature, then the axiom is removed from the ontology.


  1. Remove a class (‘organ’) and and all its descendants:

    robot remove –input uberon_module.owl \ –term UBERON:0000062 \ –select “self descendants” \ –trim true \ –output results/remove_class.owl

  2. Remove all individuals from OBI:

robot remove --input obi.owl --select individuals --trim true
  1. Remove all anonymous entities from the UBERON module:

    robot remove –input uberon_module.owl \ –select anonymous –trim true \ –output results/remove_anonymous.owl

  2. Remove all deprecated classes from OBI:

robot remove --input obi.owl \
  --select "owl:deprecated='true'^^xsd:boolean" --trim true
  1. Filter for only desired annotation properties (in this case, label and ID). This works by actually removing the opposite set of annotation properties (complement annotation-properties) from the ontology:

    robot remove –input uberon_module.owl \ –term rdfs:label –term oboInOwl:id –trim true \ –select complement –select annotation-properties \ –output results/filter_annotations.owl